[Home ] [Archive]    
:: Main :: About :: Current Issue :: Archive :: Search :: Submit :: Contact ::
Main Menu
Journal Information::
Articles archive::
Indexing Databases::
To Authors::
To Referees::
Contact us::
Site Facilities::
Google Scholar Metrics

Citation Indices from GS

AllSince 2019
Search in website

Advanced Search
Receive site information
Enter your Email in the following box to receive the site news and information.
Registered in



:: Volume 11, Issue 1 (1-2024) ::
2024, 11(1): 34-44 Back to browse issues page
TRX Training Impact on Femur Neck Bone Density and Serum Leptin in Osteopenic Women: A Four-Month Study
Fatemeh Poodineh , Abbas Salehikia , Maryam Banparvari , Zahra Raghi
Department of Sport Sciences, Faculty of Education and Psychology, University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Zahedan, Iran , salehikia@ped.usb.ac.ir
Abstract:   (232 Views)
Introduction: Osteoporosis, characterized by diminished bone mass and increased fracture susceptibility, prompts the investigation into the impact of a four-month TRX training regimen on femur neck bone mineral density (BMD) and its correlation with serum leptin levels in women with osteopenia.
Material & Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 30 women with osteopenia were purposefully selected and randomly assigned to TRX training (n = 15) or control (n = 15) groups. The intervention group underwent TRX exercises thrice weekly for 45-60 minutes per session for four months. Blood samples collected at baseline and post-intervention measured serum leptin levels via ELISA kit (Bio vendor, Czech Republic), while Dexa Lexxos Digital (2D model, USA) determined femur neck BMD. SPSS 20 software, dependent/independent samples t-tests, and Pearson correlation were used for data analysis.
Results: TRX training significantly increased femur neck BMD, reducing serum adiponectin levels versus the control group (P = 0.001 and P = 0.01, respectively). Compared to baseline, TRX training raised femur neck BMD and lowered serum leptin levels (P = 0.000 and P = 0.01, respectively). A significant inverse correlation emerged between femoral neck BMD and serum leptin levels in women with osteopenia (P = 0.00).
Conclusion: Findings suggest that TRX resistance training holds promise for enhancing the rehabilitation of women with osteopenia
Keywords: Osteopenia, TRX Exercise, Femur Neck Bone Mineral Density, Leptin
Full-Text [PDF 1541 kb]   (158 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research | Subject: Physical medicine
Received: 2021/11/3 | Accepted: 2022/01/22 | Published: 2024/01/20
1. Saiem Aldahr MH. Bone mineral status response to aerobic versus resistance exercise training in postmenopausal women. World Appl Sci J. 2012;16(6):806-13. http://www.idosi.org/wasj/wasj16(6)12/5.pdf.
2. Khorsandi J, Shamsi M, Jahani F. The survey of practice about prevention of osteoporosis based on health belief model in pregnant women in arak city. J Rafsanjan Univ Med Scie. 2013; 8(1):35-46. http://journal.rums.ac.ir/article-1-1661-fa.html.
3. Hernlund EA, Svedbom M, Ivergård J, Compston C, Cooper J, Stenmark EV, et al. Osteoporosis in the european :union:: Medical management, epidemiology and economic burden. 2013; 8: 136. dio:10.1007/s11657-013-0136-1.
4. Chen H, Zhou X, Fujita H, Onozuka M, Kubo KY. Age-related changes in trabecular and cortical bone microstructure. Int J Endocrinol. 2013; 213234. [DOI:10.1155/2013/213234.]
5. Bemben DA , Bemben MG. Dose-response effect of 40 weeks of resistance training on bone mineral density in older adults. Osteoporos Int. 2011 ;22(1):179-86. [DOI:10.1007/s00198-010-1182-9.]
6. Khan AA, Farhad A, Siddiqui PQR, Ansari B. Effects of osteoanabolic exercises on bone mineral density of osteoporotic females: A randomized controlled trial. Int J Health Sci. 2019;13 (1):9-13. PMID: 30842712; PMCID: PMC6392486.
7. Ahmadi Kakavandi M, Alikhani S, Azizbeigi K. The Effect of body pump training on bone mineral density and balance in postmenopausal women. Iran J Health Educ Health Promot. 2019; 7 (3):316-327. http://journal.ihepsa.ir/article-1-1160-en.html.
8. Kemmler W, Lauber D, Weineck J, Hensen J, Kalender W, Engelke K. Benefits of 2 years of intense exercise on bone density, physical fitness, and blood lipids in early postmenopausal osteopenic women. Arch Intern Med. 2004; 164(10):1084-1091. doi:10.1001/archinte.164.10.1084.
9. Laura AG, Armas R. Pathophysiology of osteoporosis. Endocrinol Metab Clin.2014; 41(3):475–486. doi: 10.1016/j.ecl.2012.04.006.
10. Bemben DA , Bemben MG. Dose-response effect of 40 weeks of resistance training on bone mineral density in older adults. Osteoporos Int. 2011 ;22(1):179-86. [DOI:10.1007/s00198-010-1182-9.]
11. Winters-Stone KM, Snow CM. Site-specific response of bone to exercise in premenopausal women. Bone. 2006; 39(6):1203-1209. [DOI:10.1016/j.bone.2006.06.005.]
12. Tavakkoli Darestani A, Hosseinpanah F, Tahbaz F, Amiri Z, Tavakkoli Darestani R, Hedayati M. Effects of conjugated linoleic acid supplementation on body composition and leptin concentration in post-menopausal women. Iran J Endocrinol Metab. 2010; 12(1): 48-59. http://ijem.sbmu.ac.ir/article-1-787-en.html.
13. Reid IR. Relationships among body mass, its components, and bone. Bone J. 2012; 31: 547-555. [DOI:10.1016/S8756-3282(02)00864-5.]
14. Roux S. New treatment targets in osteoporosis. Joint Bone Spine. 2010;77:222-8. [DOI:10.1016/j.jbspin.2010.02.004.]
15. Moonikh K, Kashef M, Azad A, Ghasemnian A. Effects of 6 weeks resistance training on Body Composition, serum Leptin and muscle strength in non-athletic men. Horizon Med Sci. 2015; 21(2): 135-40.dio: ‎ 10.18869/acadpub.hms.21.2.135.
16. Lau PWC, Kong Z, Choi CR, Yu CCW, Chan DFY, Sung RYT, et al. Effects of short-term resistance training onserum leptin levels obese adolescents .J Exerc Sci Fit. 2010; 8(1): 54-60. [DOI:10.1016/S1728-869X(10)60008-1.]
17. Peeri M, Zamani M. Comparing the effect of 8-weeks resistance training with different patterns of movement on the levels of adiponectin, leptin, testosterone and cortisol in sedentary men. Iran J Endocrinol Metab. 2016; 17(6):448-56.
18. Golara K. Suspension training total body resistance exercise. Federation of sport for all Tehran. 2016; 15-9.
19. Dawes J. Complete guide to TRX suspension training. Champaign, Illinois: Human Kinetics; 2017.
20. Fonseca H, Moreira-Gonçalves D, Coriolano HJ, Duarte JA. Bone quality: the determinants of bone strength and fragilit. Sports Med. 2014; 44(1):37-53. DOI: [DOI:10.1007/s40279-013-0100-7.]
21. Allison SJ, Folland JP, Rennie WJ, Summers GD, Brooke-Wavell K. High impact exercise increased femoral neck bone mineral density in older men: a randomised unilateral intervention. Bone J. 2013; 53(2):321-328. [DOI:10.1016/j.bone.2012.12.045.]
22. Hagihara Y, Nakajima A, Fukuda S, Goto S, Iida H, Yamazaki M. Running exercise for short duration increases bone mineral density of loaded long bones in young growing rats. Tohoku J Exp Med. 2009; 219(2):139-43. [DOI:10.1620/tjem.219.139.]
23. Mitsui Y, Gotoh M, Fukushima N, Shirachi I, Otabe S, Yuan X, et al. Hyper adiponectinemia enhances bone formation in mice. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2011; 12(18): 1-6. dio: [DOI:10.1186/1471-2474-12-18.]
24. Liu Y, Song CY, Wu Sh, Liang QH, Yuan LQ, Liao EY. Novel adipokines and bone metabolism review article. Int J of Endocrino. 2013; 8(4):1-9. [DOI:10.1155/2013/895045.]
25. Reid IR. Relationships between fat and bone. Osteoporos Int. 2008; 19(3):595– 606. Doi: : [DOI:10.1007/s00198-007-0492-z.]
26. Chanprasertyothin S, Piaseu N, Chailurkit L, Rajatanavin R. Association of circulating leptin with bone mineral density in males and females. J Med Assoc Thai. 2005;88(5):655-9. http://www.medassocthai.org/journal.
27. Oh KW, Lee WY, Rhee EJ, Baek KH, Yoon KH, Kang MI, et al. The relationship between serum resistin, leptin, adiponectin, ghrelin levels and bone mineral density in middle-aged men. Clinical Endocrinology.2005; 63(2):131-8. doi/abs/10.1111/j.1365-2265.2005.02312.x.
28. Kontogianni MD, Dafni UG, Routsias JG, Skopouli FN. Blood leptin and adiponectin as possible mediators of the relation between fat mass and BMD in perimenopausal women. J Bone Miner Res 2004; (19):546-51. doi/abs/10.1359/JBMR.040107.
29. Tsofliou F, Pitsiladis YP, Malkova D, Wallace AM, Lean ME. Moderate physical activity permits acute coupling between serum leptin and appetite-satiety measures in obese women. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2003;27(11):1332-9. [DOI:10.1038/sj.ijo.0802406.]
30. Elefteriou F, Karsenty G. Bone mass regulation by leptin: a hypothalamic control of bone formation. Pathol Biol .2004;52(3):148-53. [DOI:10.1016/j.patbio.2003.05.006.]
31. sCaro JF, Kolaczynski JW, Nyce MR, Ohannesian JP, Opentanova I, Goldman WH, et al. Decreased cerebrospinal-fluid/serum leptin ratio in obesity: a possible mechanism for leptin resistance. Lancet .1996; 348:159–61. https://d1wqtxts1xzle7.cloudfront.net.
Send email to the article author

Add your comments about this article
Your username or Email:


XML     Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Poodineh F, Salehikia A, Banparvari M, Raghi Z. TRX Training Impact on Femur Neck Bone Density and Serum Leptin in Osteopenic Women: A Four-Month Study. Journal of Basic Research in Medical Sciences 2024; 11 (1) :34-44
URL: http://jbrms.medilam.ac.ir/article-1-643-en.html

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Volume 11, Issue 1 (1-2024) Back to browse issues page
مجله ی تحقیقات پایه در علوم پزشکی Journal of Basic Research in Medical Sciences
Persian site map - English site map - Created in 0.16 seconds with 40 queries by YEKTAWEB 4637